This blog is a dedication to compiling the plethora of techniques and literary devices. We will group them into their respective categories.
Let’s begin with the category you’ll be most familiar and acquainted with, that is poetic devices.
The repetitive sound produced by vowels.
Example: The long ‘i’ sounds repeated in: “Kye tried to fly”.
A representation of a deeper meaning, often through an inanimate object.
Example: A red rose representing love.
A reoccurring pattern of sounds, typically at the end of a sentence or clause.
“he was shot down to the ground,
Until he was nothing but bound”
Using a part of something whole (e.g. a hand) to refer or represent some bigger picture.
Example: asking for someone’s hand in marriage – the hand is a synecdoche as the hand is representing the whole person.
Comparing two things (without like or as).
Example: She glared daggers at him.
Comparing two things using like or as.
Example: Her stare was cold as ice.
Sounds spelt out as words.
Example: “BOOM!”, “POW!”, “HONK HONK”
Two words holding an opposite meaning which are placed directly next to each other.
Similar to oxymoron where two things are contrasted next to each other. However, juxtaposition is not limited to words, but rather extends to scenes, phrases, etc.
Note how the character was juxtaposed (youthful vs wise/mature/elderly) in this example: She had an apparent youthful glow. Every word that flowed out of her mouth was wise, mature and that of an elderly.
This is a narrator’s reiteration of a personal story, that is embedded into the text (such as a speech).
Example: this can be a skit or snippet of a speaker’s memory, experience or life.
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of sentences/paragraphs.
Example: I believe we should take precaution. I believe it is necessary to take the first move.
The repetition of a word or phrase at the end of sentences/paragraphs.
Example: Nothing lasts forever, they say. Everything comes to an end, they say.
Example: he tried again, again and again.
The polite expression of words in place of what might otherwise be considered harsh or unpleasant.
Example: using words like “please”, “apparently”, etc when stating a rather harsh point.
Rotating a camera in order to form or display a view.
When a scene abruptly switches from one to another.
This is supplemental footage (supplemental for a specific scene for example). Usually used in documentaries.
Birds eye view:
When the camera is positioned directly above a setting to display the scene from the perspective of a bird’s view as it gazes down.
The use of clothing to establish context, represent characters etc.
These are sound effects added after the scene is shot. For example, music soundtracks.
These are sounds which originate from the film-making scenes themselves.
The casting of shadows and illuminations to develop the mood and atmosphere of the scene. Below is an example of dark lighting to depict a more evil character: